top of page

The Dhak Muslin: A Tale of Splendor, Decline, and Renaissance

Indian Lady Wearing Fine Dhak Muslin
Indian Lady Wearing Fine Dhak Muslin

The Dhak Muslin, also known as Dhakai Muslin, is a precious fabric that has traversed centuries of history, fame, decline, and ultimately, an extraordinary revival. Originating from Bengal, a region rich in textile traditions, Dhak Muslin is celebrated for its exceptional fineness and transparency. In this article, we will explore the fascinating history of this fabric, how it was lost, how it was rediscovered, and how it is used today.

The History of Dhak Muslin

Dhak Muslin has ancient roots dating back to the 3rd century BCE. This fabric was produced in the Bengal region, with the city of Dhaka, now the capital of Bangladesh, becoming the primary center of production. Local weavers used Phuti karpas, an extremely fine variety of cotton, to create a lightweight and transparent fabric that became famous worldwide. During the Mughal period (16th-18th centuries), Dhak Muslin reached its peak splendor. The Mughal emperors greatly appreciated this fabric and used it to make court garments. Its quality was so high that it was said a piece of Dhak Muslin could pass through a wedding ring. Its lightness and transparency were considered symbols of luxury and sophistication, making the fabric highly coveted not only in India but also in Europe, where it was exported by British, Dutch, and Portuguese merchants.

The Decline of Dhak Muslin

Western Noble Wearing Dhak Muslin
Western Noble Wearing Dhak Muslin

The decline of Dhak Muslin began in the 18th century with the arrival of the British East India Company and the subsequent colonization of the Indian subcontinent. The Industrial Revolution in England led to the mass production of cheaper cotton fabrics, which flooded Indian and international markets, reducing the demand for the prized Dhakai muslin. British commercial and fiscal policies penalized local producers, imposing high taxes and export restrictions that severely damaged the indigenous textile industry. The repression of local weavers by British colonialists further contributed to the decline. It is said that weavers were forced to cease production, and in some cases, even mutilated to eliminate competition. While these stories may be exaggerated, they reflect the severity of colonial measures against local craftsmanship. With the decrease in demand and the repression of weavers, many Dhak Muslin production techniques were lost. The knowledge that was passed down from generation to generation began to disappear, leaving few traces of the glorious past of this fabric.

The Rediscovery of Dhak Muslin

The rediscovery of Dhak Muslin was made possible through a collective effort involving researchers, artisans, governments, and non-governmental organizations. Textile historians and scholars conducted thorough research to document traditional weaving techniques and the characteristics of Dhak Muslin. This documentation provided a foundation for the revival of the fabric. The government of Bangladesh, along with various NGOs, initiated programs for the revitalization of Dhak Muslin. These programs included training new weavers, establishing cooperatives, and promoting the fabric domestically and internationally. One of the main challenges was to find the cotton varieties historically used for Dhak Muslin, such as Phuti karpas. Agronomists worked to reintroduce these cotton varieties, crucial for achieving the distinctive quality of muslin. Artisans and weavers collaborated with designers and stylists to create modern products using Dhak Muslin. These collaborations brought the fabric into the spotlight of contemporary fashion, attracting the attention of a global audience. Exhibitions and textile fairs, both locally and internationally, played a crucial role in promoting Dhak Muslin, offering a platform to showcase the beauty and quality of the fabric, generating interest and demand.

“Dhak Muslin Today”

Dhak Muslin Today
Dhak Muslin Today

Today, Dhak Muslin is used for a variety of purposes, both in fashion and home decor. Traditional garments like saris and kurtas are among the most popular. Thanks to its lightweight and breathability, Dhak Muslin is ideal for summer and ceremonial clothing. In home decor, Dhak Muslin is appreciated for its elegance and finesse. Dhak Muslin curtains add a touch of lightness and movement to rooms, while tablecloths and cushions lend a refined and sophisticated look. Due to its breathability, Dhak Muslin is also ideal for garden furnishings, making outdoor spaces cozy and comfortable.


The Dhak Muslin, once lost and nearly forgotten, has been revived through a collective effort involving researchers, artisans, governments, and organizations. Today, this fabric represents not only a symbol of Bangladesh's cultural heritage but also a testament to the resilience and passion of the weavers who have tirelessly worked to preserve and revitalize this ancient art. The resurgence of Dhak Muslin celebrates tradition and innovation, uniting the past and present in a thread of extraordinary beauty and significance.

1 view0 comments

Recent Posts

See All


bottom of page